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Statigraphy is therefore important in the relative dating of all types of rock. Such study is essential in the relative dating of the layers, structures, burials, and artifacts and is of particular importance in cases where the natural order of the layers has been disturbed by, for example, digging, cave-ins, landslides, or erosion. Traces of the vital activity of blue-green algae are encountered in very large quantities.

In areas where the strata have undergone folding, faulting, and erosion, stratigraphic techniques are used to determine their correct sequence. Spencer, Basic Concepts of Historical Geology (1962); R. The stratigraphy of archaeological remains is established by studying vertical sections. In the 1960’s these algae came into use for the differentiation and correlation of carbonate strata of the Upper Precambrian.

The importance of stratigraphic excavation to archaeologists is really about change over time: the ability to recognize how artifact styles and living methods adapted and changed.

See the papers by Lyman and colleagues (1998, 1999) linked below for more information about this sea change in archaeological theory.

Smith was not much interested in paleontology because, in the 19th century, people who were interested in a past that was not laid out in the Bible were considered blasphemers and heretics.

However, the presence of fossils was inescapable in the early decades of The Enlightenment.

Geologists and archaeologists alike have noted that the earth is made up of layers of rock and soil that were created by natural occurrences—the deaths of animals and climatic events such as floods, glaciers, and volcanic eruptions—and by cultural ones such as midden (trash) deposits and building events.

There were exceptions: William Henry Holmes published several papers in the 1890s on his work for the Bureau of American Ethnology describing the potential for ancient remains, and Ernest Volk began studying the Trenton Gravels in the 1880s.Civil engineers and land surveyors became de facto experts in the stratigraphy they were seeing, and many of the leading geologists of the day began working with those railway specialists to find and study the rock cuttings throughout Britain and North America, including Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, and Joseph Prestwich.Scientific archaeologists applied the theory to living soils and sediments relatively quickly, although stratigraphic excavation—that is to say, excavating and recording information about the surrounding soils at a site—was not applied consistently in archaeological excavations until around 1900.stratification(Lat.,=made in layers), layered structure formed by the deposition of sedimentary rocks. Younger geological units overlie, embay, or intrude older units. Even small pieces of sedimentary rocks contain hundreds or thousands of such organisms, a fact of particular importance in determining the age of rocks in cores from boreholes.Changes between strata are interpreted as the result of fluctuations in the intensity and persistence of the depositional agent, e.g...... Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition, which states that in a normal sequence of rock layers the youngest is on top and the oldest on the bottom. It is therefore possible to produce geological maps of the surface of a planet or satellite, and to form a stratigraphic classification to help to understand its history. Special mention should be made of spore and pollen analysis, which is used for determining the age of sedimentary strata in all subdivisions of the Phanerozoic.

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