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To validate your zone, you can use the following tools Zonemaster DNSViz If your zone is dynamic, you first need to freeze the zone = a sequence number in case you update your zone more than once in the day.This number must increase at every zone update to make sure secondary name servers get the update properly.If the date of your serial number has changed since last update, just change it to today's date and reset the sequence to Warning: For DNSSEC enabled zones, bind will automatically increase the serial number when performing signing operations.While the 10 above will work for most cases, it might not when you just created or updated your zone key.To prevent the information being returned edit the file For more details, read the quick introduction to response rate limiting from ISC (Bind author). Let's add a zone for If you are hosting your primary name server on a server that you are renting, there is good chance that your provider provides you with a free secondary name server.Rate limiting allows to render such attacks ineffective while still answering legitimate responses. Otherwise, search for secondary name server online. First create a file How often a secondary will poll the primary server to see if the serial number for the zone has increased. A Start Of Authority record is required for each zone. Any host label within a record that uses a fully qualified domain terminating with an ending period will not append the origin hostname. The “@” symbol is a special label that indicates the $ORIGIN should replace the “@” symbol. SOA Record – The $ORIGIN is followed by the zone’s Start Of Authority (SOA) record.
A zone file consists of directives and resource records. ( 2001062501 ; serial 21600 ; refresh after 6 hours 3600 ; retry after 1 hour 604800 ; expire after 1 week 86400 ) ; minimum TTL of 1 day ; ; IN NS dns1. dns1 IN A 10.0.1.1 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::1 dns2 IN A 10.0.1.2 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::2 ; ; @ IN MX 10 mail. mail IN A 10.0.1.5 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::5 mail2 IN A 10.0.1.6 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::6 ; ; ; This sample zone file illustrates sharing the same IP addresses ; for multiple services: ; services IN A 10.0.1.10 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::10 IN A 10.0.1.11 IN AAAA aaaa:bbbb::11 ftp IN CNAME services. ; ; A reverse name resolution zone file is used to translate an IP address in a particular namespace into an fully qualified domain name (FQDN). ( 2001062501 ; serial 21600 ; refresh after 6 hours 3600 ; retry after 1 hour 604800 ; expire after 1 week 86400 ) ; minimum TTL of 1 day ; @ IN NS dns1. Version might be useful to an attacker that is searching known vulnerabilities on your server. Note that it is not an excuse to run old vulnerable software.The goal is just to slow down attacker in case of newly published security exploit, so you have enough time to update before getting pwned.Directives tell the nameserver to perform tasks or apply special settings to the zone, resource records define the parameters of the zone and assign identities to individual hosts. It looks very similar to a standard zone file, except that the $ORIGIN 1.0.10. While the directives are optional, the resource records are required in order to provide name service to a zone.